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   PCR GLOSSARY: (R)

 


RACE-PCR ( rapid amplification of cDNA ends )

- RACE-PCR is an anchor PCR modification of RT-PCR. The rationale is to amplify sequences between a single previously characterized region in the mRNA (cDNA) and an anchor sequence that is coupled to the 5 or the 3 end. A primer is designed from the known internal sequence and the second primer is selected from the relevant anchor sequence
Definition from:
Human Molecular Genetics 2

Tom Strachan
& Andrew P. Read, 1999


RAPD ( Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA )

- A technique for amplifying anonymous stretches of DNA, using PCR with arbitrary primers.
Definition from:
http://www.igd.cornell.edu/MolecularMarkers/Glossary.pdf


Real Time PCR (Originally described as “Kinetic PCR” by Higuchi et al. in 1993)
 
- Real-time PCR is so named because it detects and measures the amplification of target nucleic acids as they are produced. Real-time PCR requires the use of primers similar to those used in conventional PCR. However, unlike conventional PCR, real-time PCR uses an oligonucleotide probe labeled with fluorescent dyes or an alternative fluorescent detection chemistry, and a thermocycler equipped with the ability to measure fluorescence. ...
Quality Assurance/Quality Control Guidance for Laboratories Performing PCR Analyses on Environmental Samples

- Real-Time PCR, also called quantitative (real-time) PCR or Real-Time Quantitative PCR (RTQ-PCR), is a method of simultaneous DNA quantification and amplification. DNA is specifically amplified by polymerase chain reaction. After each round of amplification, the DNA is quantified. Common methods of quantification include the use of fluorescent dyes that intercalate with double-strand DNA and modified DNA oligonucleotides (called probes) that fluoresce when hybridized with a complementary DNA. ...
Definition from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real-Time_PCR

- A technique designed to detect and quantify sequence-specific PCR products as they accumulate in 'real-time' during the PCR amplification process.
Definition from:
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v6/n2/glossary/nrg1525_glossary.html


Rep-PCR

- Is a type of polymerase chain reaction that targets the repetitive sequences in bacterial genomes using specific primers that are designed complementary to bacterial interspersed repetitive sequences
Definition from:
Lactobacillus Genotyping by Fluorophore - Enhanced Repetitive PCR (FERP) and Capillary Electrophoresis

Ania Szary,2001


Restriction enzyme

- These are enzymes (endonucleases, more specifically) which recognize a specific, short sequence of DNA and cut the DNA at that point. Different restriction enzymes recognize and cut different sequences. There are hundreds of different restriction enzymes available commercially. Many restriction enzymes leave "sticky ends" when they cut, which are available to bind with other "sticky ends" left by the same enzymer. Restriction enzymes are a vital tool in genetics, since they allow cutting (and pasting) of DNA
Definition from:
http://www.acad.carleton.edu/curricular/BIOL/classes/bio125/recdna
/glossary.html

- A protein that recognizes specific, short nucleotide sequences and cuts DNA at those sites. Bacteria contain over 400 such enzymes that recognize and cut more than 100 different DNA sequences
Definition from:
Genome Glossary

- An endonuclease that will recognise a specific target sequence and cut the DNA chain at that point.
Definition from:
http://www.igd.cornell.edu/MolecularMarkers/Glossary.pdf


Restriction site

- The specific nucleotide sequence of DNA at which a particular restriction enzyme cuts the DNA.
Definition from:
http://www.igd.cornell.edu/MolecularMarkers/Glossary.pdf

- A sequence of DNA that is recognized by an endonuclease (a protein that cuts DNA) as a site at which the DNA is to be cut.
Definition from:
Genetests


Reverse transcriptase

-RNA-dependent DNA polymerase - An enzyme that uses an RNA molecule as a template for the synthesis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) strand
Definition from:
http://www.qimr.edu.au/qimr_glossary.html

- A reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-directed DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this, as it synthesises DNA from RNA
Definition from:
Reverse transcriptase, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

- An enzyme used by retroviruses to form a complementary DNA sequence (cDNA) from their RNA. The resulting DNA is then inserted into the chromosome of the host cell.
Definition from:
Genome Glossary


Reverse Transcription

- The copying of an RNA molecule back into its DNA complement. The enzymes that perform this function are called reverse transcriptases. Reverse transcription is is used naturally by retroviruses to insert themselves into an organism's genome. Artifically-induced reverse transcription is a useful technique for translating unstable mRNA molecules into stable cDNA.
Definition from:
Glossary of Biotechnology Terms

- The process of copying information found in RNA into DNA.
Definition from:
http://www.biochem.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/Definitions/Def-R/reverse_transcription.html


RFLP ( Restriction fragment length polymorphism )

- Variation in DNA fragment banding patterns of electrophoresed restriction digests of DNA from different individuals of a species. Often due to the presence of a restriction enzyme cleavage site at one place in the genome in one individual and the absence of that specific site in another individual.
Definition from:
http://www.biochem.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/Definitions/Def-R/RFLP.html

- Variation between individuals in DNA fragment sizes cut by specific restriction enzymes; polymorphic sequences that result in RFLPs are used as markers on both physical maps and genetic linkage maps. RFLPs usually are caused by mutation at a cutting site.
Definition from:
Genome Glossary

- A genetic polymorphism with respect to the observed length of a restriction fragment. RFLPs can result from single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as from insertions, deletions, or microsatellite expansions
Definition from:
Mouse Genome Informatics


RT-PCR ( Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction )

- A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Definition from:
http://www.biochem.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/Definitions/Def-R/RT-PCR.html

- A method of amplifying mRNA by first synthesizing cDNA with reverse transcriptase, then amplifying the cDNA using PCR. A positive result is evidence of a particular mRNA, and hence of gene expression, in a sample.
Definition from:
Mouse Genome Informatics

- A two-step process. First, complementary DNA (cDNA) is made from an RNA template, using a reverse transcriptase enzyme, and then some of it is used in a PCR reaction to produce large quantities.
Definition from:
http://www.qimr.edu.au/qimr_glossary.html#R


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