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   PCR GLOSSARY: (D)

 


DD-PCR (Differential display PCR )

Differential display PCR is a PCR-based technique that allows side-by-side comparison of multiple RNA samples and can facilitate the identification of both suppressed and induced genes
Definition from:
Transcriptome Profiling and the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Complications
Susan B. Connolly et al. 2003

Differential display PCR is a powerful technique that can be used to detect differences in gene expression between different types of cells and tissues.
Definition from:
Astrocytic Ceruloplasmin Expression, Which Is Induced by IL-1 and by Traumatic Brain Injury, Increases in the Absence of the IL-1 Type 1 Receptor
Kuhlow,et al, 2003


Degenerate PCR

Degenerate PCR is in most respects identical to ordinary PCR, but with one major difference. Instead of using specific PCR primers with a given sequence, you use mixed PCR primers. That is, if you do not know exactly the sequence of the gene you are going to amplify, you insert "wobbles" in the PCR primers where there is more than one possibility. For instance, if you just have a protein motif, you can back-translate the protein motif to the corresponding nucleotide motif. (Protein --> Sequence). ...
Definition from:
The NTNU Plant Genetics Group


Deletion

- A genetic mutation involving the loss of DNA. This may be small, affecting only a portion of a single gene, or it may be large, such as partial or complete loss of a chromosome, affecting many genes
Definition from:
http://www.uvm.edu/~cgep/Education/Glossary.html


Denaturation

- With respect to nucleic acids, refers to the conversion from double-stranded to the single-stranded state, often achieved by heating or alkaline conditions. This is also called "melting" DNA.
Definition from:
A Glossary of Terms commonly used in Molecular Biology

- The process of splitting the complementary double strands of DNA to form single strands
Definition from:
Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet DataBase

- Describes the conversion of DNA from the double-stranded to the single-stranded state; separation of the strands is most often accomplished by heating.
Definition from:
The Human Genome Sequencing Center


Deoxynucleotide triphosphates ( dNTPs )

- dNTPs are the nucleotide bases added to the growing DNA strand by the DNA polymerase. The concentration of each dNTP in the reaction mixture is usually 200ÁM. It is very important to have equal concentrations of each dNTP (dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP), as inaccuracy in the concentration of even a single dNTP dramatically increases the misincorporation level
Definition from:
http://www.eeescience.utoledo.edu/Faculty/Sigler/RESEARCH/Protocols/PCR/PCR.pdf

- Are the bases added to a primer during the PCR that comprise the newly synthesized strand. Examples of dNTPs are dATP, dUTP, dCTP, dGTP and dTTP.
Definition from:
http://www.iupui.edu/~wellsctr/MMIA/htm/pcr.htm


DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

- DNA is composed of two anti-parallel strands which wind about a common axis to form a double helix. Each strand of DNA is composed of a linear array of nucleotides bonded in such a way that the bases extend toward the central axis of the molecule while the two backbones are composed of alternating sugar and phosphate subunits. The bases of the two strands are weakly bonded to each other in a complementary fashion. In other words, an adenine is always bound to a thymine while a cytosine is always bound to a guanine.
Definition from:
Access excellence

- The molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a double- stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs form only between A and T and between G and C; thus the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner
Definition from:
http://linkage.rockefeller.edu/wli/glossary/genetics.html

- The molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next.
Definition from:
National Cancer Institute
 


DNA amplification

- DNA amplification is a process for replicating large amounts of DNA from just a few original strands. Thermal Gradient's technology greatly simplifies and accelerates the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the most popular DNA amplification method available
Definition from:
http://sev.prnewswire.com/banking-financial-services/20050126/NYW12126012005
-1.html

 

- The creation of numerous copies of a given DNA sequence, generally through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Definition from:
http://www.uvm.edu/~cgep/Education/Glossary.html

- DNA amplification is a process for making large amounts of DNA from just a few original strands
Definition from:
http://www.trillium-group.com/PR-Thermal-Gradient.htm


DNA Fingerprinting (DNA typing)

- A technique for identifying individual organisms based upon the uniqueness of their DNA pattern. The technique has applications in forensics, paternity testing, anthropology, conservation biology and ecological research.
Definition from:
http://ec.europa.eu/research/biosociety/library/glossarylist_en.cfm?Init=D

- The use of DNA sequences specific for an organism for identification purposes
Definition from:
Epoch Biosciences
 


DNA polymerase

-
An enzyme that produces or synthesizes DNA. These enzymes always use an existing DNA molecule as a template for producing a new strand of DNA.
Definition from:
Genelex


DNA sequencing

- The process of determining the order of bases in a segment of DNA
Definition from:
Proactive Genetics


dsDNA ( double stranded DNA)


Double Helix
- The shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when hydrogen-bonded together.
Definition from:
Mouse Genome Informatics


double-stranded (ds)

- Consisting of two bound strands, each of which is the complement of the other. DNA is usually double-stranded, while mRNA is not
Definition from:
Glossary of Biotechnology Terms


Downstream

- In the direction of the 3' end of a DNA strand.
Definition from:
http://www.dddmag.com/glossary.aspx?lm=7#d


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